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Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory...
The Community Land Model (CLM) is an effective tool to simulate the biophysical and biogeochemical processes and their interactions with the atmosphere. Although CLM Version 5 (CLM5) constitutes various updates in these processes, its performance in simulating energy, water and carbon cycles over...
Both highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections are characterized by severe disease and high mortality. The continued threat of their emergence from zoonotic populations underscores an important need to understand the dynamics of...
The pathogenesis of human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is complex. EVD is characterized by high levels of virus replication and dissemination, dysregulated immune responses, extensive virus- and host-mediated tissue damage, and disordered coagulation. To clarify how host responses contribute to EVD...

Download IHTM Workshop Report Water is one of our most important natural resources and is essential to our national economy and security. Multiple federal government agencies have mission elements that address national needs related to water. Each water-related agency champions a unique science and...

The novel fungal strain, Fusarium sp. DS 682, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the perennial grass, Bouteloua gracilis, at the Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas. This fungal strain is common across North American grasslands and is resilient to environmental fluctuations. The draft...
The soil microbiome is central to the cycling of carbon and other nutrients and to the promotion of plant growth. Despite its importance, analysis of the soil microbiome is difficult due to its sheer complexity, with thousands of interacting species. Here, we reduced this complexity by developing...
As part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Science Focus Area program, we are investigating the impact of environmental change on microbial community function in grassland soils. Three grassland soils, representing different moisture regimes, were selected for ultra-deep...
Increasing levels of nutrients, persistent hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and increased frequency of fish kills are degrading the ecological health of the Salish Sea. An improved version of a diagnostic hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model (nutrients, phytoplankton, carbon, dissolved oxygen, and pH...

The literature on the effects of radiation on the properties of various polymers and composites has been briefly reviewed for the purpose of identifying polymeric materials that could be irradiated to improve their performance. Radiation treatment of polymers may lead to cross-linking or chain...

Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures.Specialized materials...

An alternative method is presented for determining the maximum acceptable dose in products irradiated in electron beam processes. When the presentation of an individual product to the radiation field results in a high dose uniformity ratio, this can present a challenge for accurate testing of a...

Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and...

Today, the most common methods used for medical device sterilisation are by gaseous ethylene oxide and by electron beam or gamma irradiation. With X-ray sterilisation about to enter the market, its material compatibility needs to be assessed at doses typically encountered during a sterilisation...

Predicting phenotypic expression from genomic and environmental information is arguably the greatest challenge in today’s biology. Being able to survey genomic content, e.g., as single-nucleotide polymorphism data, within a diverse population and predict the phenotypes of external traits, represents...