Characterization of the Lipopolysaccharides and Capsules of Shewanella spp

Journal Article
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, iss. 9, pp. 4653-4657, 2002
Anton A. Korenevsky, Evgeny Vinogradov, Yuri Gorby, Terry J. Beveridge
ABSTRACT Electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining and 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to detect and characterize the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of several Shewanella species. Many expressed only rough LPS; however, approximately one-half produced smooth LPS (and/or capsular polysaccharides). Some LPSs were affected by growth temperature with increased chain length observed below 25°C. Maximum LPS heterogeneity was found at 15 to 20°C. Thin sections of freeze-substituted cells revealed that Shewanella oneidensis , S. algae , S. frigidimarina , and Shewanella sp. strain MR-4 possessed either O-side chains or capsular fringes ranging from 20 to 130 nm in thickness depending on the species. NMR detected unusual sugars in S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. algae BrY DL . It is possible that the ability of Shewanella to adhere to solid mineral phases (such as iron oxides) could be affected by the composition and length of surface polysaccharide polymers. These same polymers in S. algae may also contribute to this opportunistic pathogen's ability to promote infection.