Finite-temperature many-body perturbation theory for anharmonic vibrations: Recursions, algebraic reduction, second-quantized reduction, diagrammatic rules, linked-diagram theorem, finite-temperature self-consistent field, and general-order algorithm

Journal Article
The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 159, iss. 8, 2023
Xiuyi Qin, So Hirata
A unified theory is presented for finite-temperature many-body perturbation expansions of the anharmonic vibrational contributions to thermodynamic functions, i.e., the free energy, internal energy, and entropy. The theory is diagrammatically size-consistent at any order, as ensured by the linked-diagram theorem proved in this study, and, thus, applicable to molecular gases and solids on an equal footing. It is also a basis-set-free formalism, just like its underlying Bose–Einstein theory, capable of summing anharmonic effects over an infinite number of states analytically. It is formulated by the Rayleigh–Schrödinger-style recursions, generating sum-over-states formulas for the perturbation series, which unambiguously converges at the finite-temperature vibrational full-configuration-interaction limits. Two strategies are introduced to reduce these sum-over-states formulas into compact sum-over-modes analytical formulas. One is a purely algebraic method that factorizes each many-mode thermal average into a product of one-mode thermal averages, which are then evaluated by the thermal Born–Huang rules. Canonical forms of these rules are proposed, dramatically expediting the reduction process. The other is finite-temperature normal-ordered second quantization, which is fully developed in this study, including a proof of thermal Wick’s theorem and the derivation of a normal-ordered vibrational Hamiltonian at finite temperature. The latter naturally defines a finite-temperature extension of size-extensive vibrational self-consistent field theory. These reduced formulas can be represented graphically as Feynman diagrams with resolvent lines, which include anomalous and renormalization diagrams. Two order-by-order and one general-order algorithms of computing these perturbation corrections are implemented and applied up to the eighth order. The results show no signs of Kohn–Luttinger-type nonconvergence.