The Role of Process-Directing Agents on Enamel Lesion Remineralization: Fluoride Boosters

Journal Article
Biomimetics, vol. 7, iss. 2, pp. 54, 2022
Hamid Nurrohman, Logan Carter, Noah Barnes, Syeda Zehra, Vineet Singh, Jinhui Tao, Sally J. Marshall, Grayson W. Marshall
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two process-directing agents (polyaspartic acid and osteopontin) used in a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process on the remineralization of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization. Enamel demineralization lesions (depths of about 180–200 µm) were created and exposed to Streptococcus mutans, cultured with a 10% sucrose solution for 21 days, and remineralized using a PILP process (pH = 7.4, 14 days) with a calcium phosphate solution containing either polyaspartic acid or osteopontin in the presence or absence of fluoride (0.5 ppm). The specimens were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The fluoride was successfully incorporated into the PILP remineralization process for both polyaspartic acid and osteopontin. When the fluoride was added to the PILP remineralization solution, there was more uniform remineralization throughout the lesion than with either polyaspartic acid or osteopontin alone. However, in the absence of these process-directing agents, fluoride alone showed less remineralization with the formation of a predominantly surface-only layer. The PILP remineralization process relies on the ability of process-directing agents to stabilize calcium phosphate ions and holds promise for enamel lesion remineralization, and these agents, in the presence of fluoride, seem to play an important role as a booster or supplement in the continuation of remineralization by reducing the mineral gains at the surface layer.