Thiol redox proteomics: Characterization of thiol‐based post‐translational modifications

Journal Article
PROTEOMICS, vol. 23, iss. 13-14, 2023
Xiaolu Li, Austin Gluth, Tong Zhang, Wei‐Jun Qian
AbstractRedox post‐translational modifications on cysteine thiols (redox PTMs) have profound effects on protein structure and function, thus enabling regulation of various biological processes. Redox proteomics approaches aim to characterize the landscape of redox PTMs at the systems level. These approaches facilitate studies of condition‐specific, dynamic processes implicating redox PTMs and have furthered our understanding of redox signaling and regulation. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool for such analyses which has been demonstrated by significant advances in redox proteomics during the last decade. A group of well‐established approaches involves the initial blocking of free thiols followed by selective reduction of oxidized PTMs and subsequent enrichment for downstream detection. Alternatively, novel chemoselective probe‐based approaches have been developed for various redox PTMs. Direct detection of redox PTMs without any enrichment has also been demonstrated given the sensitivity of contemporary MS instruments. This review discusses the general principles behind different analytical strategies and covers recent advances in redox proteomics. Several applications of redox proteomics are also highlighted to illustrate how large‐scale redox proteomics data can lead to novel biological insights.